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Early Age Children are most vulnerable

為什麼需要潔淨空氣? Why Need Air Purifier?

 如果不阻止不斷惡化的空氣污染物,所有吸入污染物的生物都會受到威脅。即使能夠生存下去,環境條件也變得非常嚴酷的。保護我們的生活環境變得至關重要,改善空氣質素不應再拖延下去。 聯合國兒童基金會發表的“為兒童潔淨空氣 – 空氣污染對兒童的影響”指出空氣污染的負面作用:


  • 可導致孕婦流產,嬰兒早產和過低出生體重
  • 造成佔五歲以下兒童死亡人數十分之一的各種疾病
  • 可損害兒童大腦的健康發展
  • 對經濟和社會造成了拖累,其成本已經高達全球GDP的0.3% – 並且每年持續上升。
  • 空氣污染物是世界性的問題,而且情況不斷惡化
  • 以體重比例計算,兒童的呼吸速度比成年人快一倍,由於兒童的呼吸道更具透氣性,因此更易受傷害
  • 主要由煙霧引起的微細空氣污染物更容易進入並刺激兒童的肺部,導致並加劇危及生命的疾病。研究表明,這些微小的顆粒可以穿過血腦屏障,兒童對此的抵抗力較小,會引起炎症,甚至損害腦組織,並永久損害認知發展。
  • 當孕婦暴露於含有有害污染物空的氣時,污染物甚至可以穿過胎盤屏障,傷害發育中的胎兒。



Without putting a stop to the worsening volume of air pollutants, the very survival of all life forms is threatened. Even if they can survive, condition will be most harsh. Protection of our living environment becomes critical and should not be delayed any further. From the “Clear the air for children – The impact of air pollution on children” by the UNICEF:


  • It causes miscarriages, early delivery, and low birth weight.
  • It contributes to diseases that account for almost 1 in 10 of all deaths of children under the age of five.
  • It can harm the healthy development of children’s brains.
  • It is a drag on economies and societies, already costing as much as 0.3 per cent of global GDP – and rising.
  • And in many parts of the world, it is getting worse.
  • Children breathe twice as quickly as adults and take in more air relative to their body weight.
  • Their respiratory tracks are more permeable and thus more vulnerable. Their immune systems are weaker. Their brains are still developing.
  • Ultrafine, airborne pollutants — caused primarily by smoke and fumes — can more easily enter and irritate children’s lungs, causing and exacerbating life-threatening disease. Studies show these tiny particles can also cross the blood-brain barrier, which is less resistant in children, causing inflammation, damaging brain tissue, and permanently impairing cognitive development.
  • They even can cross the placental barrier, injuring the developing fetus when the mother is exposed to toxic pollutants.

為什麼幼兒最容易受到空氣污染的影響? Why are young children most vulnerable to the impact of air pollution?

幼兒的免疫系統仍處於發展期,他們的肺處於生長期。每一次呼吸,兒童所吸入每單位空氣,相對的他們的體重,較成年人的高。進一步地說,當空氣含有有毒物質時,他們所攝取的有毒物質量相對比成人高。此外,空氣污染對兒童的影響,還會對他們的生活產生其他關鍵性的連鎖效應 。例如,當兒童生病時,他們會缺席上學,進一步削減他們的學習和潛力發展機會。 


Young children’s immune systems are still developing, and their lungs are still growing. With every breath, children take in more air per unit of body weight than adults. By extension, when air is toxic, they take in more toxic air per unit of body weight than adults. Moreover, the impacts have ripple effects into other critical aspects of children’s lives. For example, when children get sick, they might miss school, further limiting their learning and development potential.   

IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION

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空氣污染對發展中的大腦的影響? WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION ON THE DEVELOPING BRAIN?

 
第一,空氣污染可能通過多種機理影響兒童的大腦。 


 

首先,污染物顆粒物會通過破壞血腦屏障(一種薄而脆的膜)而引起神經炎症,這個血腦屏障的功能是保護大腦免受有毒物質的侵害。超污染細物顆粒物(直徑等於或小於2.5微米的顆粒物質)構成的風險特別高,因為超污染細物顆粒物可以更容易地進入血液,並流穿過人體到達大腦。

在老年人中,血腦屏障的破裂與阿爾茨海默氏症和帕金森病有密切關係。在兒童成長的初期,相對成人來說,非常少劑量的有毒化學物質已經足夠破壞及損害大腦 。



Air pollution potentially affects children’s brains through several mechanisms.  


First, particulate matter can cause neuro-inflammation by damaging the blood-brain barrier – a thin, delicate membrane that protects the brain from toxic substances Ultrafine pollution particles (particulate matter that is equal or less than 2.5 microns in diameter) pose an especially high risk because they can more easily enter the blood stream and travel through the body to the brain.

In older people, the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier has been strongly linked with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. The dosage of toxic chemicals required to damage the growing brain in the first stages of life is much lower than that which would cause damage to an adult brain.

第二,空氣污染顆粒中的磁鐵礦容易進入人體。


 一些特別的空氣污染顆粒,如磁鐵礦, 其體積是非常細小的,它可以通過嗅覺神經和腸道進入人體。在城市室外環境中,磁鐵礦是一種非常普遍的污染物。最新研究發現,在空氣污染很高的城市地區,人體大的腦內亦存在相當高水平的磁鐵礦。由於細小如納米的磁鐵礦粒子帶有磁荷,及容易促進氧化反應能力,因此,磁鐵礦對大腦來說,具有非常高度毒性 – 這也是使神經退化等疾病的其中主要原因。 

Second, specific air pollution particles, such as magnetite, are so small that they can enter the body through the olfactory nerve and the gut.


Magnetite is very common in urban outdoor air pollution, and a recent study found that it was considerably more present in brains of people living in areas where urban air pollution is high. Magnetite nanoparticles are highly toxic to the brain due to their magnetic charge and their ability to help create oxidative stress – which is often the cause of neurodegenerative diseases. 

第三,特定類別的污染物多環芳烴(PAHs)可損害大腦的白質。


多項研究顯示,大腦的白質含有神經纖維,這些神經纖維在神經元交流時,用作幫助大腦跨越不同部位進行關鍵性交流。幼兒在成長階段, 利用 感官接觸外界,良好的神經聯繫為持續習和發展提供了關鍵性的基礎。 進一步的神經學研究顯示,暴露在空氣污染的環境,會直接影響兒童的認知功能力,包括了其語言和非語言的智商及記憶力、降低幼兒在學校的考試測驗分數、及使兒童較同輩之間平均分等級為低,此外,也還會引起兒童的其他行為問題。媽媽在懷孕期間吸入含污染物的空氣,汚染物可能會穿過胎盤並影響胎兒的腦部發育,這影響甚至是終生性的。研究顯示,媽媽產前暴露於高濃度空氣污染的環境,與幼兒3歲時發育遲緩是相關聯的,亦也引致兒童後期的心理和行為問題,包括注意力不足過動症(ADHD),焦慮症和抑鬱症等症狀,一項研究報告指出,暴露在含空氣污染的子宫,幼兒5歲時的商會會下降4點。


 Third, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)


Several studies also show that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a specific class of pollutants formed from fossil fuel combustion and commonly found in areas of high automobile traffic, contribute to a loss of or damage to white matter in the brain. White matter contains nerve fibers that are critical in helping neurons communicate across different parts of the brain. As children grow and experience the world around them, well-functioning neural connections provide the foundation for continued learning and development. Air pollution and cognitive function Reinforcing the neurological evidence, studies have found associations directly between air pollution exposure and cognitive outcomes, including verbal and nonverbal IQ and memory, reduced test scores, grade-point averages among school children, as well as other neurological behavioral problems. Air pollutants inhaled during pregnancy can cross the placenta and affect the developing brain of a fetus, with potential lifelong effects. Research shows an association between prenatal exposure to high levels of air pollution and developmental delay at age three, as well as psychological and behavioral problems later in childhood, including symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and depression. One study reports a four-point drop in IQ by the age of 5 among a sample of children exposed in utero to toxic air pollution. 

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Perfect Particulates Purification Air Purifier

為什麼要選用PPP空氣淨化機? Why Choose PPP Air Purifier?

 

空氣污染物,特別是微細顆粒物(通常稱為PM2.5)和揮發性有機化合物(VOCs),是可吸入的懸浮顆粒污染物、氣態污染物或它們在空氣中的混合物,吸入後可能會對人體造成大範圍的不良影響。科學研究已經將空氣污染物與健康問題聯繫起來,例如胎兒發育受損,兒童發育,整體健康以及嚴重的死亡。


空氣污染物不僅對兒童腦發育有害,而且還導致早期腦退化和老年癡呆症的早期發作。除了醫療保健費用增加之外,空氣污染的不利影響也會對經濟和社會發展產生直接影響。空氣污染物造成的總成本繼續上升。


Air pollutants, in particular, fine particles (commonly referred to as PM2.5) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), are respirable suspended particulates pollutants, gases phase pollutants, and/or the mixtures of them in the air and can cause wide ranging adverse effects to human health. Scientific studies have linked exposure to air pollutants to health issues such as impairment to foetus development, child growth, overall wellness, and in severe cases, death. Not only are air pollutants harmful to brain development in children, it also leads to early brain degeneration and the early onset of dementia for the elderlies. Apart from the increased burden towards health care costs, adverse effect of air pollution also creates a direct impact on the economic and social development. The overall costs caused by air pollutants continue to rise. 

Outstanding features

Outstanding Features of the Perfect Particulates Purification PPP Air Purifier 空氣淨化器的特點

  

  • 可以配置不同類型的過濾器,以於特殊的環境,或配合不同的需要,作去除不同污染物。
  • 空氣淨化效能由國家級CNAS和CMA實驗室*1 及美國Intertek實驗室測試及認證
  • PPP- 空氣淨化器具有非常高去除污染物效能的能力
  • PPP- 空氣淨化器的過濾器厚度比市場上的其他過濾器尺寸大、而且有非常大的污染物容量
  • 相比市場上同類型的產品*2 ,去除PM2.5的淨化效能高出5-10倍
  • 相比市場上同類型的產品*2 ,去除甲醛和TVOC的淨化效能高出30至220倍相比市場上同類型的產品*2,去除細菌和病毒的淨化效能高出10-100倍相比市場上同類型的產品*2 ,每瓦特耗電輸出最高的CADR量
  • 根據環境中污染物的水平自動調節風速
    可以靈活擴展以便需要時應付增加的需求(其中部份型號)


  • Different types of filters for different pollutants removal and/or specific environment are available for customer selections.
  • Performance being verified by the CNAS and CMA certified laboratory*1, Intertek Laboratory of USA
  • Very high pollutants removal effectiveness
  • Large filter thickness and filter dimensions gives large filter capacity
  • 5-10 times better performance than the market available products*2 to remove PM2.5
  • 30 to 220 times better than the market available products*2 to remove formaldehyde and TVOC
  • 100 times better than the market available products*2 to remove bacteria and virus
  • Highest CADR delivery per power consumption compare to market available product*2
  • Automatic response according to level of pollutants in the environment
  • Flexible to scaleup for increasing capacity need (specific model)



 

*1 檢測於廣州工業微生物檢測中心進行,該檢測中心是中國計量認證CMA和中國合格評定國家認可委員會CNAS認證實驗室由國家合格評定認證認可委員會。( 註:中國計量認證,是China Inspection Body and Laboratory Mandatory Approval 簡稱“CMA”)。是根據中華人民共和國計量法的規定,由省級以上人民政府計量行政部門對檢測機構的檢測能力及可靠性進行的一種全面的認證及評價。中國合格評定國家認可委員會(英文名稱為:China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment 簡稱“CNAS”),是根據《中華人民共和國認證認可條例》的規定,由國家認證認可監督管理委員會批準設立並授權的國家認可機構。)

*2 市場一般產品:市場上可用的普通空氣淨化器,由2016年“香港消費者報告”報導


 *1 Testing was performed in the Guangzhou Testing Center of Industiral Microbiology, South Chiina Testing Center of Air Purification Products, which are certified laboratory for CMA and CNAS (China Inspection Body and Laboratory Mandatory Approval & China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment) *2 market available products: the common air purifier that available in the market, being reported by the Hong Kong Consumer Report in year 2016. 


The PPP 空氣淨化機

There are five models of PPP which can suit for your purpose of removing different pollutants type for different different environment.